A Policy Analysis of Philippine School System Reform Using Advocacy Coalition Framework


  • Krizia MAGALLANES Ewha Womans University
  • Jae Young CHUNG Ewha Womans University
  • Suyeon JANG Ewha Womans University


Educational Development; Educational Change; Educational Policy; Philippine Education; Advocacy Coalition Framework


Purpose: This study aimed to examine the development and outcome of the new Philippine school system which caused a national uproar among various educational stakeholders. This new system created two coalitions, pro-coalition and opposing coalition, that voiced out their beliefs about the K-12 educational system. Method: The Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) was used to analyze both the supporting and opposing groups that had expressed their own policy beliefs and utilized their resources and venues to counter-argue and prove their stance.

Findings: The ACF showed the impact of policy actors’ roles on the verdict of the Supreme court and public perception. Despite the series of petitions submitted by the opposing coalition against the continuation of the implementation, their argument was rejected by the Supreme Court. The supporting coalition, the Philippine government, continuously supported the K-12 program regardless of the challenges such as lack of resources and funds for the implementation that remained insufficient before and even during the implementation. Implications for Research and Practice: Improving the educational system is one step towards making the new generation more academically and globally competitive. However, the government should be meticulous and sensible in their planning and implementation process and must listen to the needs of all sectors. Moreover, open communication between both coalitions and key persons of the educational sector should also be encouraged for a smoother implementation and continuation of the program. Lastly, continuous provision of funds should be prioritized in every government budget planning.